Factors which influence the expression of hope
It is important to understand that there are a number of factors which can negatively impact hope (Soundy, Stubbs, Freeman, Coffee, and Roskell, 2014). For instance, how near to threat or challenge the individual is, the past experience of illness(es) or loss(es), the exacerbation of symptoms and the provision of social support, the perception of dependency or the level of fatigue. It is important to understand what pressures there may be to express hope in a consistent way that represents a defiance of the odds. For instance, it is important to recognise the external pressures that may cause a reaction like a role or responsibility such as being a parent of a young child and the need to provide for them. Further to this, acceptance is a multidimensional concept and is relative to the hopes an individual may have. What one individual finds difficult to accept about the illness can be vastly different from another. For instance, someone who had a strong athletic identify may find it hard to accept the inability to run, where as someone else may not consider this something which needs accepting. Thus, an individual’s expression relating to hope may be due to something beyond the illness experience. To make a judgement on the expression at any given time without understanding the context or factors which influence the expression would not make sense.